This difficulty is due to the fact that the growth of MFPs in and of itself cannot be measured or identified, but can only be determined as the growth of excess production that remains after all the measurable inputs to production (in this case, labor and capital10) have been taken into account. So why don't the innovations that have been taking place in these higher-productivity companies translate into solid productivity gains across the economy? The answer has to do with how these companies have responded to their unexpected productivity gains. Labor productivity growth %3D Multifactorial productivity growth + contribution of capital intensity + contribution of labor composition. To the extent that this is true, the unemployment rate can be expected to stabilize above the lows observed during this expansion, even if productivity continues to grow at rates comparable to those achieved during the second half of the 1990s.
For example, if production increases by 3 percent and hours increase by 2 percent, then labor productivity increases by 1 percent. The contribution of labor composition is defined as the weighted change by labor force in a measure of labor composition that reflects changes in the level of skills and experience of the workforce. As for individual states, Box 2 reveals that, in addition to having the highest overall growth, the western United States also had the highest number of outliers, both at the upper and lower ends (the figure shows the productivity growth rates of the six major states and the six lowest). It should be noted that this disjunction between economic cycles and periods based on trends in terms of the current slowdown in productivity did not occur with the last major slowdown in productivity, in the 1970s.
Multifactorial productivity growth (MFP) represents the part of production growth that cannot be explained by the growth of capital and labor inputs and is due to the contributions of other inputs, such as technological advances in production, the introduction of a more streamlined industrial organization, relative changes in inputs from industries from low to high productivity, increased labor force efforts and improvements in managerial efficiency. In addition, in terms of the underlying series of labor productivity growth, the growth of multifunction printers was below average during these years, as weak production growth was combined with moderate growth in combined labor and capital inputs. In their model, the cost of upgrading technology is the key determinant of the relationship between productivity and unemployment. Workers need to find attractive, good-paying jobs, while companies need to find the most productive workers.
Bhattacharya and Packalen argue that changing incentives may also be playing a role, specifically that the “emphasis on citations” in measuring scientific productivity shifted the rewards and behavior of scientists away from incremental science and away from exploratory projects that are more likely to fail, but that are the fuel for future advances.